Soot Formation Numerical Simulation in Reducing Gas Generators of Oxygen-Methane Liquid Rocket Engines

Authors: Sidlerov D.A., Fedorov S.A. Published: 19.12.2021
Published in issue: #4(139)/2021  

DOI: 10.18698/0236-3941-2021-4-19-31

Category: Aviation and Rocket-Space Engineering | Chapter: Thermal, Electric Jet Engines, and Power Plants of Aircrafts  
Keywords: liquid rocket engine, gas generator, numerical simulation, soot formation

A method for numerical simulation of operating processes in reducing gas generators with calculation of the condensed phase (soot) formation process detailed structure has been developed. It is assumed that soot is formed from gas-phase fuel in two stages. At the first stage, active radical nuclei are formed, and at the second stage, carbon black particles are formed from these nuclei. Numerical modeling of processes, fuel mixing and combustion, as well as soot formation in model reducing oxygen-methane gas generators with gas-liquid coaxial mixing elements of jet-jet type has been performed. Gas generators of this type can be used in promising oxygen-methane liquid rocket engines operating on open and closed circuits with reducing gas generators, as well as on the gas-gas circuit having reducing and oxidizing gas generators. A comparative analysis of soot formation features in gas generators with single- and multi-nozzle mixing heads has been performed. It is shown that a decrease in the pitch between the mixing elements leads to a significant change in the mixture formation processes, fuel combustion and the flow of combustion products (all other conditions being equal), which significantly reduces the intensity of condensed phase formation in reducing gas generators. The numerical simulation method will be used for studies of fuel combustion and condensed phase formation in regenerative gas generators of modern and advanced liquid rocket engines at the stages of development, design and improvement


[1] Belov E.A., Bogushev V.Yu., Klepikov I.A., et al. Experimental results of NPO "Energomash" works on methane learning as a part of fuel for liquid propellant system. Trudy NPO "Energomash" imeni akademika V.P. Glushko, 2000, vol. 18, pp. 86--100 (in Russ.).

[2] Adzhyan A.P., Levochkin P.S. The peculiarities of development of fuel-rich preburner for methane multi-mode engine. Trudy NPO "Energomash" imeni akademika V.P. Glushko, 2012, vol. 29, pp. 211--223 (in Russ.).

[3] Leontev N.I., Kolkin Ye.N., Zavyalov V.S. KB Khimmash LOX/LNG development status. 48th Int. Aerospace Cong. Berlin, 2000, pp. 23--28.

[4] Gorokhov V.D., Rachuk V.S., Grigorenko I.N. Development of liquid propulsion engines, working on liquefied natural gas and liquid oxygen. 1st Int. Conf. Green Propellants for Space Propulsion. Noordwiyk, Netherlands, 2001, pp. 235--240.

[5] Dorofeev A.A., Yagodnikov D.A. Thermodynamic modeling of the composition and characteristics of combustion products of overrich liquid rocket fluids in the quenching mode. High Temp., 2018, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 263--269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0018151X18010066

[6] Trusov B.G. Code system for simulation of phase and chemical equilibriums at higher temperatures. Inzhenernyy zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii [Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation], 2012, no. 1 (in Russ.). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18698/2308-6033-2012-1-31

[7] Kalmykov G.P., Larionov A.A., Sidlerov D.A., et al. Numerical simulation and investigation of working process features in high-duty combustion chambers. J. Engin. Thermophys., 2008, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 196--217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1810232808030053

[8] Magnussen B.F., Hjertager B.H. On mathematical modeling of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on soot formation and combustion. Symp. (Int.) Combust., 1977, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 719--729. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0082-0784(77)80366-4

[9] Tesner P.A. Obrazovanie ugleroda iz uglevodorodov gazovoy fazy [Carbon producing from gaseous hydrocarbons]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1972.

[10] Krestinin A.V., Kislov M.B., Raevskii A.V., et al. On the mechanism of soot particle formation. Kinet. Catal., 2000, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 90--98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02756146

[11] Krestinin A.V. Detailed modeling of soot formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis. Combust. Flame, 2000, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 513--524. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(99)00167-4

[12] Lautenberger Ch.W., de Ris J.L., Dembsey N.A., et al. A simplified model for soot formation and oxidation in CFD simulation of non-premixed hydrocarbon flames. Fire Saf. J., 2005, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 141--176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2004.10.002

[13] Sarlak R., Shams M., Ebrahimi R. Numerical simulation of soot formation in a turbulent diffusion flame: comparison among three soot formation models. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. C: J. Mech. Eng. Sc., 2012, vol. 226, no. 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0954406211421997

[14] Yunardi A., Elwina B., Sylvia N., et al. A comparative performance study of soot formation models in methane elevated pressure non-premixed flames. Appl. Mech. Mater., 2012, vol. 110-116, pp. 18--22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.110-116.18

[15] Karatas Ah.E., Gulder O.L. Soot formation in high pressure laminar diffusion flames. Prog. Energy Combust. Sc., 2012, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 818--845. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2012.04.003

[16] Leung K.M., Lindstedt R.P., Jones W.P. A simplified reaction mechanism of soot formation in non-premixed flames. Combust. Flame, 1991, vol. 87, no. 3-4, pp. 289--305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-2180(91)90114-Q

[17] Habiballah M., Vingert L., Traineau J.C., et al. Mascotte --- a test bench for cryogenic combustion research. 47th Int. Astronaut. Cong., Beijing, 1996, p. 77.

[18] Habiballah M., Orain M., Grisch F., et al. Experimental studies of high-pressure cryogenic flames on the Mascotte facility. Combust. Sс. Tech., 2006, vol. 178, no. 1-3, pp. 101--128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00102200500294486

[19] Ledoux M., Micci M., Vingert L. Atomization of coaxial-jet injectors. Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Liquid Rocket Propulsion, 1995, pp. 2-1--2-19.